Annotated Bibliography for Staff and Skills - Essay Example In addition, it also forms an essential supplier of cooking gas in the country delivering to over 62.4 million numbers of households in the country. The companyâ€™s research and development centre which is located at Faridabad generates the most outstanding of technologies and solutions for the various operating divisions of the company and to its customers throughout the country and also abroad. The organizational structure of Indian Oil is rather flat with very few levels of management intervention between the staffs and the management. Instead of being supervised through numerous management layers, staffs are greatly involved with the decision making process of the company. The company is known for nurturing employee involvement through a decentralized decision making process (IOCL, 2012). Indian Oil- Structure, Strategy, System, Style Indian Oil represents a flat hierarchical structure which is primarily functional in nature. The company is divided into units and subunits according to their areas of functions. The company has equal presence both in the refineries as well as marketing segments. With the help of an integrated supply chain model the organization integrates between its various divisions and functional units. Each division is headed by a Director who is responsible for reporting to the Chairman. The importance of differentiating between the various functional divisions is that they maintain their own knowledge and technology for producing their own products. Each of the functional divisions also caters to their own markets and areas of operation. However, there is ample integration between the various functional units. Interlinked through an effective communication and information system, the organization enhances knowledge sharing between each functional component. The functional organizational structure has each unit operating their own marketing divisions. These marketing segments operate according to the conditions and situations where they function and the markets in which they operate (Klassen & Menor, 2005, p.411). Role of the Leader/Management in Indian Oil The management and leadership programs in Indian Oil represent a participative style of leadership. Decision making by the management is particularly designed for acquiring the views and suggestions of employees of the organization. Employee empowerment programs are made crucial components of the HR practices and strategies of the corporation. This is done with the aim to acquire strong commitment and devotion of employees towards the organization. Also the accountability, responsibility and liability of employees as decision makers of strategies and work processes are greatly enhanced through this system. However, the presence strong business leaders in the company cannot be ruled out. It is guided and directed through a handful of very strong and competent business leaders who provide strategic direction to the company. Particularly during the presence of crisis situations and fluctuations in business conditions, the role of the management played a crucial role in handling the turmoil situations effectively. Also effective leadership and management control played a role in exploiting the adverse economic conditions for capturing some of the emerging markets in the country. The company also demonstrates an effective and strong human resource management system
Types of data sources Essay 1. Evaluate relevant sources of data and information and discuss the criteria for selection of data and information. There are several different types of data sources for example there are primary sources of data which would be original documents, original research studies (peer reviewed), case studies. Secondary data is data collected from someone other than the user for example a biography of an individual would be secondary data compared to the personâ€™s auto biography. There is also tertiary data which is a combination of both primary and secondary sources of data. Relevant sources of information tend to be sources that are reliable and credible. There are two basic types of information which are quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative information is expressed in figures which will answer questions such as, how likely? How long? How many? Etc. Qualitative information expresses information that cannot be measured in a numerical formation and answers questions such as How? Why? What? For example the quantitative data of a product would tell the user the diameters of the product, how much the product weighs etc. This information would be useful for say the packaging department but to the advertising department this information would only have so much use they would need qualitative data about said product in order for them to sell it Joint and by product costing â€“ There are different methods to allocate costs within a production process for example a process may produce three different products x y and z, the costs for this process would be allocated to each individual product based on the amount of each product that is produced in one run of this process and the costs may be allocated in different ways such as weight produced or the net realisable value (selling price) of each product and apportioned this way. The most appropriate method of cost allocation will inform management which product or products are generating a profit or a loss and this information would be used to make decisions as to continue certain processes of products. Variance analysis of costs i.e the difference between actual expenditure and budgeted expenditure, would generate quantitative data such as the differences between the two figures however it would not example HOW this happened so without the qualitative data on HOW this happened giving management more useful information to work with to improve the adverse variances . The criteria for the selection of data and information would be as to whether it is relevant, reliable, The rational model proposes that people follow a rational, four step sequence when making decisions. The four steps are: * Indentifying the problem * Generating solutions * Selecting a solution * Implementing and evaluating the solution The normative model suggests that decision making is characterised by; * Limited information processing there is a limit to how much information a person can manage. * Judgemental heuristics shortcuts are used to simplify decision making. * Satisfying choosing solutions that meet minimum requirements and are good enough 3 â€“ Evaluate methods of communicating decisions made and discuss the processes for implementing and evaluating a communication method Oral Communication: Oral communication could be said to be the most used form of communication. Whether it is to present some important data to your colleagues or lead a boardroom meeting, these skills are vital. We are constantly using words verbally to inform our subordinates of a decision, provide information, and so on. This is done either by phone or face-to-face. The person on the receiving end would also need to exercise much caution to ensure that he/she clearly understands what is being said. This shows therefore, that you would need to cultivate both your listening and speaking skills, as you would have to carry out both roles in the workplace, with different people. Written Communication:Â Writing is used when you have to provide detailed information such as figures and facts, even while giving a presentation. It is also generally used to send documents and other important material to stakeholders, which could then be stored for later use as it can be referred to easily as it is recorded. Other important documents such as contracts, memos, and minutes of meetings are also in written form for this purpose. It can be seen in recent years however, that verbal communication has been replaced to a great extent by a faster form of written communication, and that is email. You could also use videoconferencing and multiple way phone calls with several individuals simultaneously. Apart from a few glitches that could occur, these methods of communication have helped organizations come a long way. Body Language: Although the most common methods of communication are carried out orally or in writing, when it comes to management techniques, the power of non-verbal communication must never be underestimated. Your smile, your gestures and several other body movements send out a message to the people around you. You need to be mindful of this while dealing with your employees and customers. Always remember to maintain eye contact. This would show that you are serious and confident about what is being said.
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.